How to Start a Business in Egypt: Procedures and Best Practices


Egypt with its rich history and promising market offers abundant opportunities for entrepreneurs looking to start their own businesses. With a strategic location, a large consumer base, and a growing economy, Egypt provides an attractive environment for both domestic and international investors. Let’s understand the procedures involved in a business setup in Egypt for budding entrepreneurs and investors looking to leverage its growing economy. 

Market Overview:

Egypt boasts a population of over 100 million people, making it one of the largest consumer markets in the Middle East and North Africa region. Its strategic location provides easy access to regional and global markets, further enhancing business prospects. Key sectors of the Egyptian economy include tourism, manufacturing, construction, energy, agriculture, and information technology.

Legal Procedures:

1. Business Registration:

To start a business setup in Egypt, you must register with the General Authority for Investment and Free Zones. This step involves obtaining the necessary licenses and permits. According to the World Bank’s Doing Business 2020 report, Egypt ranked 114th out of 190 economies for ease of starting a business.

2. Company Formation:

Determine the legal structure of your business, such as a sole proprietorship, partnership, or limited liability company (LLC). The World Bank’s report reveals that it takes an average of 14 days to register a business setup in Egypt, faster than the regional average of 19.6 days.

3. Tax Registration:

Register with the Egyptian Tax Authority (ETA) to obtain a tax identification number and fulfill your tax obligations.

Financing Options:

1. Local Financial Institutions:

Egypt has a well-developed banking sector offering various financing options, including business loans and lines of credit.

2. Venture Capital and Start-up Funding:

Egypt has witnessed a surge in start-up ecosystem support, with several venture capital funds and incubators providing funding and mentorship. 

According to Magnitt, funding for venture capital in Egypt increased in 2022 for the fifth year in a row, rising 3% to $517 million in 2022. There were 160 venture capital deals in the country last year. 

Workforce and Human Resources:

1. Skilled Labor Pool:

Egypt boasts a sizable and diverse labor force, with a significant number of university graduates and technical professionals.

2. Labor Laws and Regulations:

Familiarize yourself with the local labor laws, including employment contracts, wages, working hours, and employee rights and benefits. Egypt implemented labor reforms that led to an improvement in its ranking on the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business index, rising from 122nd in 2019 to 117th in 2020.

The Procedure for Starting a Business in Egypt:

1. Business Idea and Planning:

  • Identify a viable business idea and conduct thorough market research to assess its potential success in Egypt.
  • Develop a comprehensive business plan that includes market analysis, financial projections, and marketing strategies.

2. Business Registration:

  • Register with the General Authority for Investment and Free Zones to obtain legal recognition for your business. 
  • Prepare the required documents, including a notarized memorandum of association, articles of association, and application forms.
  • Pay the registration fees and submit the documents to GAFI for review and approval.

3. Commercial Registry Office:

  • Visit the Commercial Registry Office within the governorate where your business will operate.
  • Submit the approved GAFI documents, along with additional required documents such as lease agreements, to the Commercial Registry Office.
  • Pay the necessary fees and obtain your commercial registry certificate.

Tax Registration:

  • Register with the Egyptian Tax Authority (ETA) to obtain a tax identification number (TIN).
  • Complete the required tax registration forms and submit them to the ETA.
  • Upon successful registration, you will receive your TIN, enabling you to fulfill your tax obligations.

Social Insurance:

  • Register your employees with the Egyptian Social Insurance Organization (ESIO) to provide them with social security benefits.
  • Submit the necessary documents, including employee information, to the ESIO.
  • Pay the monthly social insurance contributions for your employees.

Municipality Permits and Licenses:

  • Depending on your business activity, you may need to acquire additional permits and licenses from the local municipality or relevant government departments.
  • Examples include health permits for food-related businesses, construction permits, and trade licenses.
  • Consult with the appropriate authorities to determine the specific requirements for your business.

Opening a Bank Account:

  • Choose a reputable bank in Egypt and open a business bank account.
  • Provide the necessary documents, including your commercial registry certificate, TIN, and identification documents.
  • Once your account is active, you can manage your business finances and transactions effectively.

Post-Incorporation Obligations:

  • Comply with legal obligations, such as filing annual financial statements, maintaining proper accounting records, and submitting tax returns.
  • Stay informed about any changes in laws or regulations that may affect your business operations.
  • Consider seeking professional advice from local accountants or legal experts to ensure ongoing compliance.